Guru Granth Sahib or Adi Granth, is the final Guru of the Sikhs: The Granth is the central text of Sikhism. The Granth is considered the living embodiment of the Gurus, the "eleventh guru". It is considered the Supreme Spiritual Authority and Head of the Sikh religion. It is the holy book of the Sikhs, is 1,430 pages long and is written entirely in verse. It the longest rhymed poetry in the world. The word "Granth" means "book," and "Guru" means "giver of enlightement." Guru Granth Sahib was given the Guruship by the last of the living Sikh Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1708. Guru Gobind Singh said before his demise that the Sikhs were to treat the Granth Sahib as their next Guru.
"Sab Sikhan ko hokam hai Guru Manyo Granth"
meaning "All Sikhs are commanded to take the Granth as Guru".
Guru Granth Sahib is a collection of devotional hymns and poetry which proclaims God, lays stress on meditation on the True Guru (God), and lays down moral and ethical rules for development of the soul, spiritual salvation. The sacred verses of Sri Guru Granth Sahib are called Gurbani, which means the Guru's word or the song messages enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The Granth is written in Gurmukhi, a script devised specially for the purpose of recording the gurus words. Gurmukhi means "from the guru's mouth."
Guru Granth Sahib is the focal point of all Sikh rituals and ceremonies, wherever it rests, the space becomes holy. Sikhism rejects idol worship, so the Guru Granth Sahib is not worshipped as an idol, but rather emphasis is placed on respect of the book for the writings which appear within. Guru Granth was composed in poetry perhaps to both prevent alterations or adulterations, and to reach out to human heart.
Compiled by : Sri Arjun Dev ji in year1604 A.D.
The Guru Granth Sahib was first compiled by the Fifth Sikh Guru, Arjan Dev, in 1604 in the city of Amritsar. Its second and last version was the handiwork of Guru Gobind Singh, and it was finalized at Damdama Sahib in the year 1705. He added the hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth Master, and a couplet of his own to the volume wrought a century earlier. Since then, the authorized version has been transcribed and printed a number of times, and it abides.
The Sikh Gurus:
- Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji - 974 hymns
- Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji - 62 Couplets
- Shri Guru Amar Das Ji - 907 hymns
- Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji - 2,218 hymns
- Shri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji - 59 hymns and 56 Couplets (added by Guru Gobind Singh ji.)
Bhaktas and Sufis:
- Beni - 3 hymns
- Bhatts - 123 Swatyyas
- Bhikhan - 2 hymns
- Dhanna - 4 hymns
- Farid - 4 hymns and 130 couplets
- Jaidev - 2 hymns
- Kabir - 292 hymns
- Mardana -
- Namdev - 60 hymns
- Parmananda - 1 hymn
- Pipa - 1 hymn
- Ramananda - 1 hymn
- Ravidas - 441 hymns
- Sadhana - 1 hymn
- Sain - 1 hymn
- Satta and Balvand - 1 hymn
- Sundar - 1 hymn
- Sur Das - 2 hymns
- Trilochan - 4 hymns